I don't think you can get what you want for that budget. I have a wide format machine that cost $16,000 and it doesn't print on vinyl or print fluorescents. It's inkjet too so will smear if sprayed with...
Yeah Library of Congress is great for this type of thing... I had to use it a while back for something and I got great search results... The copyright can be an issue though - seems like the LOC has no idea about most of the stuff on there.
Currently I am looking for a nice old image to make a life size cut out of... not turning out to be an easy task.
"(re)view is a collection of retro images that each tell a unique story by capturing moments from the past. From humorous, kitschy images to heartwarming, emotional portraits, the collection contains timeless subject matter such as the innocence of childhood, friends, family, business and industry."