Yes. Sometimes my hands type something different from what my brain is thinking. Or maybe it’s the other way around; I’m never sure. A mental RIP-to-output glitch, I suppose.
As PD mentioned, they can be the same thing depending on who’s saying them. However, I suspect you’re referring to written style guides and layout application or CSS stylesheets.
So if that’s the case, many companies adhere to a book (a style guide) that lists the various rules associated with the company’s visual branding (logo use, color combinations, etc.) or style books that standardize the company’s writing style — for example, the Associated Press (AP) Stylebook or the Chicago Manual of Style (we use the AP Stylebook for most things, by the way).
Stylesheets are different. In web design, for example, CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is a language used to style the appearance of how the structural data (the HTML) is displayed. In layout applications, like InDesign or QuarkXPress, stylesheets or styles are predetermined bits of formatting that can be applied to various content elements. For example, if you want all the text in a brochure to be 10/11 Helvetica Neue Regular with a one-pica first-line indent and no hyphenation, all of that can be reduced down to a stylesheet that can be stored and applied as needed to what you’re working on.
Taking into consideration how and on what something will be printed has a huge bearing on how one prepares the artwork. Why you’re specifically mentioning that in the context of imposition, though, is puzzling. Do you know what imposition means in printer jargon?
It sort of depends on the scanner. Scanners come with software (drivers) that control them. The hardware inside a scanner just does what it does, but the driver software typically has calibration controls (if you want to call them that) that enable you to adjust the scan being made to make up for differences in what’s being scanned or for, I suppose, the tendencies of the individual scanner to scan dark or light or too red or too blue or whatever. I’ve never thought of this as calibrating the scanner, though — it’s more like adjusting or calibrating the scan itself.