Best practices for creating designs for mugs

What are the best practices for creating designs which are to be printed on a mug? What file format is needed? Is bleeding necessary? Is there any requirements for spot colors? Any other different set of rules?

Thanks to everyone in advance.

First you find the printer who is going to print your mugs.
Then you ask them all those questions.
Or ask for their spec sheet and ask questions if you don’t understand something it says.
Because there is no set of rules.

Usually you have a fixed amount of space you can put your design on. The printer should define a blank size that you have to fit your design into.

You need to ask if they print spot color or 4-color. If spot color, you have to limit your design to the number of colors you can afford (each color is an additional charge.) Once you get up to 3 spot colors, adding a 4th might mean 4-color is cheaper, but that’s not always the case, and some printers aren’t set up for 4-color.

File format? Whatever the printer wants. With some online places, a jpg will do, even though that is not a true print file format. If spot color, Illustrator .ai works. Sometimes a PDF will work, but I’d include the Illy file just in case. If 4-color, any non-lossy format will probably work, BUT ASK THE PRINTER.

Generally, for mugs, like T-shirts no bleed is required. You have to fit inside a blank size. You don’t want to be larger.

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